The United States Code is the official, subject matter order, compilation of the Federal
laws of a general and permanent nature that are currently in force. In accordance with
section 285b of title 2 of the U.S. Code, the Code is compiled by the Office of the Law
Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives. The Code is divided into
50 titles by subject matter. Each title is divided into sections. Sections within a title
may be grouped together as subtitles, chapters, subchapters, parts, subparts, or divisions. Titles may also have appendices which may be divided into sections, rules and/or forms.
The subjects covered by the 50 titles of the U.S. Code are:
1. General Provisions
2. The Congress
3. The President
4. Flag and Seal, Seat of Government, and the States
5. Government Organization and Employees
6. Surety Bonds (repealed by the enactment of Title 31)
8. Aliens and Nationality
10. Armed Forces
12. Banks and Banking
14. Coast Guard
15. Commerce and Trade
18. Crimes and Criminal Procedure
19. Customs Duties
21. Food and Drugs
22. Foreign Relations and Intercourse
24. Hospitals and Asylums
26. Internal Revenue Code
27. Intoxicating Liquors
28. Judiciary and Judicial Procedure
30. Mineral Lands and Mining
31. Money and Finance
32. National Guard
33. Navigation and Navigable Waters
34. Navy (eliminated by the enactment of Title 10)
36. Patriotic Societies and Observations
37. Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services
38. Veterans' Benefits
39. Postal Service
40. Public Buildings, Property, and Works
41. Public Contracts
42. The Public Health and Welfare
43. Public Lands
44. Public Printing and Documents
47. Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs
48. Territories and Insular Possessions
50. War and National Defense
The "FLAG CODE"
Previous to Flag Day, June 14, 1923 there were no federal or state regulations governing
display of the United States Flag. It was on this date that the National Flag Code was
adopted by the National Flag Conference which was attended by representatives of the Army
and Navy which had evolved their own procedures, and some 66 other national groups. This
purpose of providing guidance based on the Army and Navy procedures relating to display
and associated questions about the U. S. Flag was adopted by all organizations in
A few minor changes were made a year later during the Flag Day 1924 Conference, It was
not until June 22, 1942 that Congress passed a joint resolution which was amended on
December 22, 1942 to become Public Law 829; Chapter 806, 77th Congress, 2nd session.
Exact rules for use and display of the flag (36 U.S.C. 173-178) as well as associated
(36 U.S.C. 171)
Conduct during Playing of
the National Anthem,
(36 U.S.C. 172)
the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag,
and Manner of Delivery were included.
This code is the guide for all handling and display of the Stars and Stripes.
It does not impose penalties for misuse of the United States Flag. That is left to
the states and to the federal government for the District of Columbia. Each state has
its own flag law.
Criminal penalties for certain acts of desecration to the flag were contained in Title
18 of the United States Code prior to 1989. The Supreme Court decision in Texas v.
Johnson; June 21, 1989, held the statute unconstitutional. This statute was amended
when the Flag Protection Act of 1989 (Oct. 28, 1989) imposed a fine and/or up to I year
in prison for knowingly mutilating, defacing, physically defiling, maintaining on the
floor or trampling upon any flag of the United States. The Flag Protection Act of 1989
was struck down by the Supreme Court decision, United States vs. Eichman, decided on June
While the Code empowers the President of the United States to alter, modify, repeal or
prescribe additional rules regarding the Flag, no federal agency has the authority to issue
'official' rulings legally binding on civilians or civilian groups. Consequently, different
interpretations of various provisions of the Code may continue to be made. The Flag Code may
be fairly tested: 'No disrespect should be shown to the Flag of the United States of
America.' Therefore, actions not specifically included in the Code may be deemed acceptable
as long as proper respect is shown.
UNITED STATES CODE
Where to Purchase a Copy of the U.S. Code
If you are using it for legal research, I urge you to verify your results with
the printed U.S. Code available through the U.S. Government Printing Office.
The printed U.S Code is available for purchase through the Government Printing Office (GPO)
at (202) 512-1800, Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., eastern time. Orders can also
be sent by mail to:
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
P.O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
GPO accepts checks, VISA, and MasterCard.
The U.S. Code is also available on CD-ROM from the Goverment Printing Office. The U.S. Code
CD-ROM with the laws in effect as of January 2, 1992, (stock number 052-001-00438-8) is
available for $34. The U.S. Code CD-ROM with the laws in effect as of January 4, 1993,
(stock number 052-001-00389-6) will be available (January 17, 1995) for $36. The U.S. Code
CD-ROM with the laws in effect as of January 24, 1994, is scheduled to be available March
During rendition of the national anthem when the flag is displayed, all present except
those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the
heart. Men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it
at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should render the
military salute at the first note of the anthem and retain this position until the last
note. When the flag is not displayed, those present should face toward the music and act
in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed there.
§172. Pledge of allegiance to the flag; manner of delivery
The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, 'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United
States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God,
indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.', should be rendered by standing at
attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men
should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder,
the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag,
and render the military salute.
§173. Display and use of flag by civilians; codification of
rules and customs; definition
The following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to the display and
use of the flag of the United States of America is established for the use of such
civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not be required to conform with
regulations promulgated by one or more executive departments of the Government of the
United States. The flag of the United States for the purpose of this chapter shall be
defined according to sections 1 and 2
of title 4 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto.
(a) Display on buildings and stationary flagstaffs in open; night display
It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on buildings
and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is desired, the
flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated during the hours of
(b) Manner of hoisting
The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously.
(c) Inclement weather
The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, except when an
all weather flag is displayed.
(d) Particular days of display
The flag should be displayed on all days, especially on New Year's Day, January 1;
Inauguration Day, January 20; Lincoln's Birthday, February 12; Washington's Birthday, third
Monday in February; Easter Sunday (variable); Mother's Day, second Sunday in May; Armed
Forces Day, third Saturday in May; Memorial Day (half-staff until noon), the last Monday
in May; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, July 4; Labor Day, first Monday in September;
Constitution Day, September 17; Columbus Day, second Monday in October; Navy Day, October
27; Veterans Day, November 11; Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas
Day, December 25; and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United
States; the birthdays of States (date of admission); and on State holidays.
(e) Display on or near administration building of public institutions
The flag should be displayed daily on or near the main administration building of every
(f) Display in or near polling places
The flag should be displayed in or near every polling place on election days.
(g) Display in or near schoolhouses
The flag should be displayed during school days in or near every schoolhouse.
The flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should be either on
the marching right; that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other flags,
in front of the center of that line.
(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a staff, or
as provided in subsection (i) of this section.
(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehicle or
of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motorcar, the staff shall
be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender.
(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, to the
right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services conducted
by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the flag during
church services for the personnel of the Navy. No person shall display the flag of the
United Nations or any other national or international flag equal, above, or in a position
of superior prominence or honor to, or in place of, the flag of the United States at any
place within the United States or any Territory or possession thereof: Provided, That
nothing in this section shall make unlawful the continuance of the practice heretofore
followed of displaying the flag of the United Nations in a position of superior prominence
or honor, and other national flags in positions of equal prominence or honor, with that
of the flag of the United States at the headquarters of the United Nations.
(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with another flag
against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, the flag's own right, and its
staff should be in front of the staff of the other flag.
(e) The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the
highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pennants of
societies are grouped and displayed from staffs.
(f) When flags of States, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are flown
on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always be at
the peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United States
should be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed above
the flag of the United States or to the United States flag's right.
(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown from
separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size.
International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another
nation in time of peace.
(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting
horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building,
the union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at
half staff. When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a
house to a pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, union
first, from the building.
(i) When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union
should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When
displayed in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or
blue field to the left of the observer in the street.
(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be suspended
vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a
north and south street.
(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat, should be
displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or
public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of
superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the
clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed
should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience.
(l) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a statue
or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or monument.
(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for an
instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again raised to
the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be displayed
at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the
President, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures
of the United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession,
as a mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or
foreign dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential
instructions or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not
inconsistent with law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of
the government of any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the
Governor of that State, territory, or possession may proclaim that the National
flag shall be flown at half-staff. The flag shall be flown at half-staff thirty
days from the death of the President or a former President; ten days from the day
of death of the Vice President, the Chief Justice or a retired Chief Justice of
the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives; from the day of
death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a Secretary of an
executive or military department, a former Vice President, or the Governor of a State,
territory, or possession; and on the day of death and the following day for a Member of
Congress. As used in this subsection -
(1) the term 'half-staff' means the position of the flag when it is one-half the
distance between the top and bottom of the staff;
(2) the term 'executive or military department' means any agency listed under
sections 101 and 102 of title 5;
(3) the term 'Member of Congress' means a Senator, a Representative, a Delegate, or
the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico.
(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the union
is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the grave
or allowed to touch the ground.
(o) When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with only
one main entrance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to the
observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, the flag
should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with the union to
the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when entrances are to
the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two directions, the union should
be to the east.
No disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of America; the flag should
not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors, State flags, and organization or
institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor.
(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal of dire
distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property.
(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the floor,
water, or merchandise.
(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free.
(d) The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery. It should
never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to fall free. Bunting
of blue, white, and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the middle, and
the red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping the front of the
platform, and for decoration in general.
(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a manner as
to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way.
(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling.
(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor attached to
it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any nature.
(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carrying,
or delivering anything.
(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner whatsoever.
It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs and the like,
printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a staff or halyard from which the flag is flown.
(j) No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. However,
a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, policemen, and
members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, should be worn on the left lapel near the heart.
(k) The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for
display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning.
§177. Conduct during hoisting, lowering or passing of flag
During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is passing in a
parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the flag
and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform
should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their
headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over
the heart. Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the flag in a moving column
should be rendered at the moment the flag passes.
§178. Modification of rules and customs by President
Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag of the United States of
America, set forth herein, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional rules
with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces
of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and any such
alteration or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation.
§179. Design for service flag; persons entitled to display
The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to approve a design for a service
flag, which flag may be displayed in a window of the place of residence of persons who
are members of the immediate family of a person serving in the armed forces of the United
States during any period of war or hostilities in which the Armed Forces of the United
States may be engaged.
§180. Design for service lapel button; persons entitled to wear
The Secretary of Defense is also authorized and directed to approve a design for a service
lapel button, which button may be worn by members of the immediate family of a person
serving in the armed forces of the United States during any period of war or hostilities
in which the Armed Forces of the United States may be engaged.
§181. Approval of designs by Secretary of Defense; license to
manufacture and sell; penalties
Upon the approval by the Secretary of Defense of the design for such service flag and
service lapel button, he shall cause notice thereof, together with a description of the
approved flag and button, to be published in the Federal Register. Thereafter any person
may apply to the Secretary of Defense for a license to manufacture and sell the approved
service flag, or the approved service lapel button, or both. Any person, firm, or
corporation who manufactures any such service flag or service lapel button without having
first obtained such a license, or otherwise violates sections
179 to 182 of this title, shall, upon conviction
thereof, be fined not more than $1,000.
The flower commonly known as the rose is designated and adopted as the national floral
emblem of the United States of America, and the President of the United States is
authorized and requested to declare such fact by proclamation.
The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled 'The Stars and Stripes Forever' is hereby
designated as the national march of the United States of America.
§189. Recognition of National League of Families POW/MIA flag
The National League of Families POW/MIA flag is hereby recognized officially and
designated as the symbol of our Nation's concern and commitment to resolving as fully as
possible the fates of Americans still prisoner, missing and unaccounted for in Southeast
Asia, thus ending the uncertainty for their families and the Nation.
On the admission of a new State into the Union one star shall be added to the union of the
flag; and such addition shall take effect on the fourth day of July then next succeeding
§ 3. Use of flag for advertising purposes; mutilation of flag
Any person who, within the District of Columbia, in any manner, for exhibition or
display, shall place or cause to be placed any word, figure, mark, picture, design,
drawing, or any advertisement of any nature upon any flag, standard, colors, or ensign
of the United States of America; or shall expose or cause to be exposed to public view
any such flag, standard, colors, or ensign upon which shall have been printed, painted,
or otherwise placed, or to which shall be attached, appended, affixed, or annexed any
word, figure, mark, picture, design, or drawing, or any advertisement of any nature; or
who, within the District of Columbia, shall manufacture, sell, expose for sale, or to
public view, or give away or have in possession for sale, or to be given away or for
use for any purpose, any article or substance being an article of merchandise, or a
receptacle for merchandise or article or thing for carrying or transporting merchandise,
upon which shall have been printed, painted, attached, or otherwise placed a
representation of any such flag, standard, colors, or ensign, to advertise, call
attention to, decorate, mark, or distinguish the article or substance on which so placed
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine not exceeding
$100 or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both, in the discretion of the
court. The words 'flag, standard, colors, or ensign', as used herein, shall include any
flag, standard, colors, ensign, or any picture or representation of either, or of any
part or parts of either, made of any substance or represented on any substance, of any
size evidently purporting to be either of said flag, standard, colors, or ensign of the
United States of America or a picture or a representation of either, upon which shall be
shown the colors, the stars and the stripes, in any number of either thereof, or of any
part or parts of either, by which the average person seeing the same without deliberation
may believe the same to represent the flag, colors, standard, or ensign of the United
States of America.
The seal heretofore used by the United States in Congress assembled is declared to be
the seal of the United States.
§ 42. Same; custody and use of
The Secretary of State shall have the custody and charge of such seal. Except as
by section 2902(a) of title 5, the seal shall not be
affixed to any instrument without the special warrant of the President therefor.
(a) Except as provided by subsections (b) and (c) of this section, the Secretary of
State shall make out and record, and affix the seal of the United States to, the
commission of an officer appointed by the President. The seal of the United States may
not be affixed to the commission before the commission has been signed by the President.
The Department of State. The Department of the Treasury. The Department of Defense.
The Department of Justice. The Department of the Interior. The Department of Agriculture.
The Department of Commerce. The Department of Labor. The Department of Health and Human
Services. The Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Department of
Transportation. The Department of Energy. The Department of Education. The Department of
§ 102. Military departments
The military departments are:
The Department of the Army. The Department of the Navy. The Department of the Air Force.
THIS TITLE WAS ENACTED BY ACT JUNE 25, 1948, CH. 645, SEC. 1, 62 STAT. 683
§ 700. Desecration of the flag of the United States; penalties
(a)(1) Whoever knowingly mutilates, defaces, physically defiles, burns, maintains on
the floor or ground, or tramples upon any flag of the United States shall be fined under
this title or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.
(2) This subsection does not prohibit any conduct consisting of the disposal of a flag
when it has become worn or soiled.
(b) As used in this section, the term 'flag of the United States' means any flag of
the United States, or any part thereof, made of any substance, of any size, in a form that
is commonly displayed.
(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of
Congress to deprive any State, territory, possession, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico of
jurisdiction over any offense over which it would have jurisdiction in the absence of this
(d)(1) An appeal may be taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States from
any interlocutory or final judgment, decree, or order issued by a United States district
court ruling upon the constitutionality of subsection (a).
(2) The Supreme Court shall, if it has not previously ruled on the question, accept
jurisdiction over the appeal and advance on the docket and expedite to the greatest extent
(1) To prepare, and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary one title at a time, a complete compilation, restatement, and revision of the general and permanent laws of the United States which conforms to the understood policy, intent, and purpose of the Congress in the original enactments, with such amendments and corrections as will remove ambiguities, contradictions, and other imperfections both of substance and of form, separately stated, with a view to the enactment of each title as positive law.
(2) To examine periodically all of the public laws enacted by the Congress and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary recommendations for the repeal of obsolete, superfluous, and superseded provisions contained therein.
(3) To prepare and publish periodically a new edition of the United States Code (including those titles which are not yet enacted into positive law as well as those titles which have been so enacted), with annual cumulative supplements reflecting newly enacted laws.
(4) To classify newly enacted provisions of law to their proper positions in the Code where the titles involved have not yet been enacted into positive law.
(5) To prepare and submit periodically such revisions in the titles of the Code which have been enacted into positive law as may be necessary to keep such titles current.
(6) To prepare and publish periodically new editions of the District of Columbia Code, with annual cumulative supplements reflecting newly enacted laws, through publication of the fifth annual cumulative supplement to the 1973 edition of such Code.
(7) To provide the Committee on the Judiciary with such advice and assistance as the committee may request in carrying out its functions with respect to the revision and codification of the Federal statutes.
Updated: July 8, 1995
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